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To resolve this conflict between emotion and reason I will refer to what Martha C. Nussbaum says in her Landscapes of Thought, . Paisajes del pensamiento. Methodically, my research is based in Martha Nussbaum's position that points to .. version castellana de Araceli Maira, Paisajes del pensamiento, Barcelona. Philosophers such as Martha Craven Nussbaum have seriously assumed literature and the formative commitment of schools in texts such as "Paisajes del Pensamiento" (), "El Conocimiento del Amor" () and "Sin.
It is a dire omen for those studying culture and for a society that needs academic disciplines with premodern origins, holistic, and pragmatic ambitions, and a vital engagement with the human predicament.
What I am proposing namely, a dynamic thematizing of the historical dilemma that can make historical narratives and hence communication and dialogue relevant for longer periods of time and for different fields is intended to make possible a historical-theoretical evaluation of ethical and aesthetic dimensions that can make history more reflexive and thus more scientific and equip us to highlight more forcefully its relevance for knowledge production.
I will begin by noting that there are numerous parallels between contemporary controversies in cultural theory and debate and similar exchanges in the early modern period and antiquity. This stems, in turn, from the fact that the concept of history has a very general significance, making it a kind of rag-bag containing every epistemological problem under the sun.
I base this statement on the fact that these issues, which have been argued over for a long time, need to be understood as productive dilemmas that deserve to be sustained rather than quashed. The aim is to include human and social perspectives that stand in a more authentic and multi-dimensional relation to the human environment than our highly specialized academic discipline are capable of appreciating.
This communicative entity requires the creation of more roles, which will assume key functions in the creation of history.
The old division of labour in the humanities, which was 32 the productive dilemmas of history integrated within a national evaluative schema, needs to be replaced by a more complex framework that is responsive to the ongoing renegotiation of value, identity, and utopia at the individual, local, and global level.
To focus exclusively on change and renewal is to conceal the underlying continuity that characterizes history as both concept and discipline. By foregrounding continuities in the form of tenacious dilemmas, it becomes possible to view the subject and historical narrative from a perspective that has long been suppressed within the academy.
As a concept, history reflects and represents occurrences from the past. Whatever their form, these embody a series of tenacious dilemmas, tensions that stem not from some intellectual incoherence but rather from epistemological preconditions, the phenomenon of time itself, and the transitory character of human existence.
Using these dilemmas as the backdrop for a reading of historiographical representations ranging from the ancient Greeks to our own era, I contend that they have, to a varying degree, been prominent and relevant in every age. This approach towards understanding the dynamic relevance of historical representations may be able to effect a renewal of the way history is used in our own time. Reality or representation. In what sense does the past exist?
Did it have an unambiguously independent reality, or do our belated efforts to interpret its remains in fact create the past? For decades, arguments among cultural theorists have taken the form of a struggle between a majority of historians, who defend a realist approach to knowledge, and a provocative postmodernist position which insists on the fluid and uncertain relation of knowledge to anything beyond discourse.
Between them, a constructivist position has emphasized the formative power of knowledge while nonetheless emphasizing that it is constructed by something. The various positions intersect with longstanding ontological arguments between materialists and idealists. Science or art. The answers to the preceding question lead onto the debate over whether writing history is a science or a creative artistic activity.
Can historical research and the writing of history be pursued in the same fashion as the natural sciences, or does it require its own norms? The ideal of truly transparent representation, or at least the verifiable intersubjective method, is being continually reformulated in light of its dependence upon the aesthetic qualities, particularly narrative form, of historical representations.
The perspectival, situational, and empathetic connectivity of a narrative position which joins present and past must be weighed against the necessity of a detachment that guarantees intersubjectivity, not individual preferences, will dominate a history that must serve as shared experience.
These are paradigmatic positions which all writers of history act upon. Living or dead history.
What are the conditions for history to be a living reality in contemporary society, rather than being treated merely as an archaic and meaningless phase of passing time?
The duty to remember, the fear of forgetting, the desire to learn and predict each of these positions generates both lightness and darkness, stories and oblivion. What belongs in the light changes according to the vanishing point chosen, yet it is not arbitrary.
An array of possibilities can be discerned, including Friedrich Nietzsches distinction between useful and harmful history, in which the former increases our room for manoeuvre, wisdom, judgement, victories, or revenues. Unique descriptions or rule-governed patterns. Is knowledge best presented descriptively, by means of illustrative narratives and accounts, or nomotetically, by means of general laws?
Since Aristotle BCE , history has typically been seen as required to present unique occurrences, while science seeks out general laws.
History teaches only the particular and superficial aspect of past events, while poetry and theory supply its wider underlying truths. As far back as the ancient Greeks, however, history was already associated with the chronological and sequential investigation of how significant events, Res gesta, had entailed consequences, and with the rhetorical presentation of these events as a whole.
This connection between active event and history creates historical narratives which are politically and ethically relevant. The particular or the whole. Is history a long series of single events with no inner pattern other than chance? Can every individual have his or her own account of history, or does that presuppose the existence of and participation in society?
What does a relevant context look like? Demands for broader context are not a recent invention. Almost two thousand years ago, Polybius held that history could only be written in relation to a central sequence of events, in his case the birth, rise, and fall of Rome.
In a number of respects, this approach is one of the strong contextual imperatives that have lasted over time: the develop ment of the state though war, politics, and territorial change remains the framework of history even if its scope is widened to include economics, culture, and the world of ideas.
Freedom and determination. What degree of freedom do human beings have to make their own way into the future? How constrained are we by the traditions and conditions into which we are born? This dynamic is to be found in every historical account, and represents both the desire to present an overarching coherence and continuity and the desire to liberate ourselves from precisely these forces by using history as the model for an alternative future of creativity, imagination, and freedom.
The clearest instance of this tension comes in Nietzsches attack on the destructive aspects of the fatalism that frequently accompanies history writing. He called for engagement whether in the form of solicitude, criticism, inspiration, or individuality in order to break the trammels of fate. Are traces of the past relics or narratives?
Questions of methodology have a long tradition, too. What are the surest ways of using traces from the past, and how should they be used?
Does the best path to historical knowledge lie in temporal, spatial, or cultural proximity, or, quite the reverse, is distance needed in order to see and judge fairly? Historians have always had opinions on these topics. The methodological advances by historians around largely comprised a deter35 peter aronsson mination of what were genuine historical traces and what were later accounts of the period under investigation.
Artefacts were considered to be reliable testimony where narratives tend to give rise to systematic doubts. What use is historical knowledge? Does it form the basis for wisdom about life, a Magistra Vitae, or is merely a factual reconstruction for neutral purposes, or is the point that individuals for various reasons should derive enjoyment from the past?
Is its primary value that it legitimates the ruling order or that it is capable of supplying the tools for criticizing it? Thucydides wrote in order to teach the art of war.
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Polybius was more expansive, giving reasons for why general history, pursued through the personal research of a learned man, offered the soundest foundation. They were followed by a succession of thinkers who continued to argue that history was a source of wisdom: Machiavelli, Montesquieu, and Hume, right up to the historical sociologists of our own era, among them figures as diverse as Jrgen Habermas, Michel Foucault, and Charles Tilly.
This holds doubly true for the historians of public debate: in our day conflicts and crises are invariably interpreted in the light of previous experiences that are more typically chosen on the basis of their ideological convenience than from any desire to acquire knowledge without preconditions.
On the other hand, there are always the professional historians and their Stoic antecedents: a genuine seeker after truth demands an exactness and an objectivity that are not governed by a desire to divert or startle contemporary onlookers.
It is harder to find principled defenders of history writing for pleasure, but its practitioners are numerous. Critique or confirmation.
A central aspect of the question of historys value relates to whether its overall purpose is to create a stable context of identity and stability, or, its opposite, the ability to criticize and the historicizing of all a priori considerations. Objectification, Philosophy and Public Affairs 24 Leahy London: Routledge, , Alison Jeffries Boulder, Co: Westview, Double Moral Standards? Boston Review, Oct. Stephen Macedo 9New York: Norton, An Interview with Martha Nussbaum, Cogito 10 Estlund and Nussbaum see above , Is Nietzsche a political Thinker?
International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 Matilal, ed. Bilimoria and J. Mohanty Delhi: Oxford University Press, Religion and Womens Human Rights, Criterion 36 Brigstocke, MacMillan. David A. Capabilities and Human Rights, Fordham law Review 66 Invisibility and Recognition: Democracy and the Political Role of the Artist, in Dutch translation as Onzichtbaarheid en erkenning: Democratie en de politieke rol van de kunstenaar, Nexus 19 Love, Routledge Encyclopedia of philosophy vol.
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The Modesty of Mrs. Mill Between Aristotle and Bentham, in Daedalus , The personal costs of loss of work are considered. The sapping operation was to take place without a sound beneath a clear landscape in the broad light of a peaceful day.
I hasten to make clear here that I am not merely speaking of a literal corporation but the concept of a man's becoming a function of production or distribution to the point where his personality becomes divorced from the actions it propels. The polemical method, as well as the scientific exposition, the parable, or the ethical teaching, all depend upon a process which, in effect, says, "What you believe is wrong for these reasons; what the truth is is as follows.
It allows thinking in depth to take place about the experience of the older person as well as the difficulties encountered in the caring role. Nussbaum, eds. Hayden Whites identifikation av olika troper ha givit modern nring till denna diskussion. As regards sexual work is the same.
A man walking down a deserted street sees another man beating a horse; he does not like this, he is possibly revolted by it, even angered.
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